The historical importance of the Patna city can be witnessed by the fact that there was a time during Mauryan Dynasty, Chandragupta and Ashoka had ruled not only rest part of India, even Kandhar and Bamian of Afghanistan was a part of Magadh Empire territory, which was ruled from the capital Patliputra. Chandragupta Maurya, who was a great ruler of India and a contemporary to Alexander, ruled a vast empire from Bay of Bengal to Southeastern Iran. The remains of great Maurya dynasty, which is situated in Kumharar, is the golden heritage of today's Patna.
Ancient Patna, which was known as Patliputra, was the capital of Magadha Empire. The history of Patna says that famous king Ajatshatru of Magadh Dynasty choose Patna as his capital from Rajgrih and since then it has been remained a center of ruling till now. Various dynasties and king like Harayanka, Nanda, Maurya, Sunga and Gupta had ruled it.
Patna during Maurya Dynasty
In Mauryan dynasty, which was the golden era for its history, Patna played key role and given many achievement from its golden heritage and culture to the rest part of the world. Great scholar Chanakya, Chandra gupt Maurya, Ashoka are the personalities who played significant role and given many gifts in various fields to the rest of the world. Maurya dynasty provided Patliputra a special and significant status. It is difficult to believe that there was a time when ancient Patlipurta was the center of ruling for not only Indian territory even some part of Afghanistan and Iran was also a part of Mauryan dynasty. The famous Kandhar and Kabul of Afghanistan had ruled by Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka from that very city Patna. Shershah Suri was another king who established Patna as a center of Suri dynasty.
Patna in Gupta Dynasty
Guptan dynasty which is know as the golden era of the ancient Indian history, has also given proper attention to the city. Patna was the center for the many scholars and writers in Guptan era and it dominated the entire country by its valuable gifts in every span of life. In Guptan era, Patliputra continued its cultivation of great scholars and eminent personalities. The great mathematician and astrologer Aryabhatt was born in Patlipurta who has given much contribution in mathematics and astrology. The great Nalanda University, which was the center of learning in the world and enchanted many scholars from China and Tibbet, was established by Kumar Gupta, which was a Gupta king. Needless to say, Nalanda and Vikramsheela Universities are the golden heritage of Bihar and it were flourised in various dynasties including Gupta period.
After traveling through many zigzag paths and seeing many ups and downs in its history, today Patna is on the way to achieving its past glory once again. Present government has started many moves to achieve its golden glory and its status with sincere efforts.
Patna also played a crucial role during Mughal dynasty and it continued during British Raj.